8 Reasons for Geographic Tongue & How To Treat It

8 Reasons for Geographic Tongue & How To Treat It

 Whitney DiFoggio MA, RDH
Written by Whitney DiFoggio MA, RDH
Medical Reviewed on Oct 17, 2023
byDr. Matthew Hannan DDS
🔬 Evidence Based
8 Reasons for Geographic Tongue & How To Treat It

Geographic tongue is a condition where the “dorsal” (top) surface of the tongue develops these irregular-looking, map-like patterns of red patches. To top it off, those patches can move or morph, changing shapes or affecting different parts of the top of the tongue. Hence the name “geographic tongue.” Clinically, this condition is called “benign migratory glossitis.”

These patches can sometimes cause a burning or stinging sensation. Even though the condition is not harmful and is usually painless, it can sometimes be associated with other medical conditions, such as psoriasis or eczema. The cause of geographic tongue is not completely understood, but it’s thought to be related to our body’s inflammatory or immune response.

What Is Geographic Tongue?

Our tongues are covered in thousands of tiny little finger-like projections called “papilla.” Papilla house things like taste buds, making it possible to interpret different flavors of foods. But sometimes, those papillae become damaged and can either swell up or fall off of the tongue altogether. When they fall off, it leaves a raw, red-looking, smooth tongue texture behind.

Geographic tongue happens when those raw patches develop. You can see the smooth, pinkish-red surface surrounded by the remaining papilla; they resemble continents and oceans on a paper map. There might even be a thickish white border around the edges of each raw, red patch. Only in this case, you’re not reading a map; you’re looking at the top of your tongue. 

How Do You Get Geographic Tongue?

The exact cause of geographic tongue is not something you can pinpoint as an “aha” moment, but it is thought to be related to inflammation and changes in our bodies because of an immune response, illness, or deficiency. The good news is that these oral mucosal lesions aren't contagious or caused by poor oral hygiene, so you won’t spread it by kissing or sharing food. Some people may be more prone to developing geographic tongues because of underlying factors such as genetics or conditions like psoriasis.

What Symptoms Can You Expect?

If someone has geographic tongue, they may experience symptoms such as red and white patches on the surface of their tongue that resembles irregular, map-like patterns. These patches can change in size and shape over time and can sometimes cause a burning or stinging sensation. Some people with geographic tongue may also experience a loss of taste or a metallic taste in their mouth. People also experience irritation or a burning sensation from alcohol and hot, or spicy foods.

young girl with geographic tongue

Here are some of the clinical characteristics of geographic tongue:

  • Red, irregularly shaped patches on the surface of the tongue: These patches can appear as smooth, raised areas with a white or yellow border around the tongue's surface.
  • Pain or sensitivity: Some people with geographic tongue may experience pain or sensitivity on their tongue, especially when eating spicy or acidic foods.
  • Discomfort or burning sensation: A burning or discomfort sensation is common in some cases and is worsened with spicy, acidic or hot foods.
  • Variable patterns: The patches can appear and disappear in different areas of the tongue over time, with a range of patterns.
  • Associated symptoms: In some cases, geographic tongue may be accompanied by other symptoms, such as dry mouth, bad breath or metal taste.

The symptoms can be uncomfortable, but they are generally painless or at least on the mild side. Some people may not even be aware they have geographic tongue, as it can go undetected unless you’re specifically looking for it or the condition is severe. 

8 Reasons, Signs, and Causes of Geographic Tongue

If you are experiencing symptoms of geographic tongue, it's important to visit a dentist as soon as possible. Dentists have the training and experience to diagnose a plethora of oral conditions, so they can provide the best advice for your unique needs. They can help rule out other causes of tongue irritation, provide treatment options, and help manage the condition if that’s what it is. 

Geographic tongue tends to flare up and go away in phases. Sometimes it’s worse than others. As you pay attention to your symptoms you may be able to link them to one of the following scenarios (and if you can link the two, it can make it easier to manage your symptoms when they do develop.) On that note, always make sure you’re sharing your health history and medication list with your dental team. Even though you might feel as though your health conditions aren’t related to the way your mouth looks, the oral-systemic health link is closer than you might realize. 

1. Genetics 

Skin conditions don’t always run in families, but if you have a parent with a geographic tongue, you might also be more likely to experience symptoms. A lot of doctors and dentists feel that the condition could be genetic and passed on from one generation to the next.


When you inherit a genetic condition from your parent, you usually have the advantage of knowing what has (or hasn’t) worked well for other family members. It also gives your family dentist and physician the “heads up” to look for the condition during your routine exams, so that they can intercept early symptoms while they’re less severe and more manageable. 

2. Hormonal Changes

Some people believe that their geographic tongue symptoms are most prominent during hormonal changes, such as menses, pregnancy, and/or menopause. 


Fortunately, most hormone-related oral symptoms are short-lived and resolve on their own in time. If you notice that symptoms are severe or directly correlated with medications, such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy, be sure to discuss your concerns with your medical professional (your pharmacist might have some advice too!)

3. Nutrient Deficiencies

A nutritional or vitamin deficiency can vary from not getting enough sunlight to eating too few leafy green vegetables. The specific nutrients that are thought to influence geographic tongue the most include:

  • Zinc
  • Iron
  • Folic acid
  • Vitamin B6 
  • Vitamin B12


Fortunately, this one is easy! It’s time to up your intake of these specific nutrients either through a vitamin supplement, or, even better, fresh, whole foods. 

  • Zinc is found in poultry and red meat, as well as crab meat, dairy, nuts, and beans. 
  • Iron can be found in oats, nuts, beans, lentils, and of course, your dark leafy green vegetables like spinach and broccoli.
  • Folic acid? They’re also in dark leafy green vegetables! Additionally, you can get it from whole grains, seafood, peanuts, sunflower seeds, and beans. 
  • What about vitamins B6 and B12? B6 is packed into tuna, salmon, chickpeas, and bananas. While B12 is more in your meats, cheeses, eggs, and fish. 

Most of these nutrients are also found in your “fortified” breakfast cereals. Just be sure to pick one that isn’t loaded with tons of sugar or artificial sweeteners. 

4. Poor Oral Hygiene

Active oral infection, redness, and swelling will always occur if your oral hygiene isn’t up to par. Because dental plaque is loaded with bacteria, our body naturally wants to attack it if we aren’t cleaning it away every day. That’s why conditions like gingivitis and gum disease are so common. 

Your tongue is no stranger to bacterial buildup. Every time you eat, tons of tiny little food particles get tucked away between those finger-like projections across the surface of your tongue. If you aren’t sure how to clean them off the right way, you could be more prone to bad breath, tongue infections, and a red, irritated tongue. 


Brushing twice a day and flossing every day are a given. But you also need to make sure you’re using a tongue scraper. Tongue scrapers do just what you think they do: scrape away buildup, food, plaque, and germs on your bumpy tongue surface. 

To use a tongue scraper, place it as far back as comfortable on your tongue. Apply light to medium pressure, then pull or scrape the tool toward the tip of your tongue. Take a peek at it, and you’ll honestly be flabbergasted by what you see. Rinse it off before using it another one to two swipes. 

Since you might want to avoid scraping over any geographic tongue flare-ups, use an alcohol-free mouth rinse as well.

5. Allergies

Some researchers do believe that allergies and allergic reactions play a role in the development of geographic tongue. Their studies show that people with allergy issues are more likely to develop geographic tongue than people who don’t. It has to do with the immune response, similar to why people develop skin conditions like eczema. If you’re one of the millions of people who suffer from hay fever or asthma, your risk for geographic tongue is higher than people who don’t.


People with severe allergy symptoms typically do best working with an allergist, who is a medical expert specializing in allergic reactions. Their treatment could involve injectable medications, over-the-counter drugs, and other prophylactic tactics to prevent the onset of allergy symptoms before they have a chance to get severe. 

6. Stress 

Our bodies don’t handle severe, chronic, long-term emotional stress very well. Simply put, it can make us sick and run us physically ragged. Our tongues aren’t any different. Some doctors have found that geographic tongue symptoms tend to be more likely when an individual is undergoing some type of stress in their life.


Look, we all experience stress. Stress is not avoidable and, in some situations, it’s necessary for a healthy immune system. But long-term stress can wear our bodies out and make us more likely to develop illnesses. Fortunately, stress management techniques such as meditation, exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and prescription medication can be extremely helpful. Or if possible, make lifestyle changes that can reduce your stress load overall. 

7. Fissured Tongue 

A fissured tongue is when someone has visible cracks in the sides or top (dorsal) surface of their tongue. The cracks could be tiny little lines, or they might be gigantic craters resembling the Grand Canyon (not to scale, of course.)

Fissured tongues are often thought to be genetic and passed down from parent to child, as the symptom often runs in families. Keep in mind that habits such as oral hygiene or nutrition can also be learned behaviors passed down from one generation to the next, making them familial but not genetic, per se. 


It’s not necessary to treat a fissured tongue. However, you do want to take steps to avoid infections, as food and bacteria can easily get caught deep inside of the cracks on your tongue. In addition to brushing, flossing, and the gentle use of a tongue scraper, consider using an alcohol-free mouthwash to rinse away any residual loose bacteria. 

8. Psoriasis and/or Eczema 

Psoriasis and eczema are skin conditions that cause a variety of symptoms. Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder that results in patches of raised, red, itchy, and scaly skin. Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin condition that causes red, itchy rashes to form on the body. Both conditions can be uncomfortable and difficult to manage for those affected. The cause of psoriasis and eczema is unknown, but researchers believe environmental and genetic factors may play a role. Fortunately, with proper treatment from your dermatologist, these conditions can be managed and the discomfort reduced.

But surprise, surprise: people living with eczema or psoriasis are also more likely to develop geographic tongue than people without those skin conditions. 


When it comes to treating skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema, dermatologists may use a variety of approaches such as topical creams or ointments, steroid injections, oral medicine (such as methotrexate or biologics,) light therapy, and phototherapy. The goal of treatment is to reduce the redness and itchiness caused by these skin conditions so that symptoms are mild or non-existent. Skin specialists like dermatologists typically have to monitor their patients closely to find the most effective combination of treatments for their individual circumstances. There typically isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution. 

Prevalence and Risk Factors Geographic Tongue

It’s thought that certain conditions may make a person more likely to develop geographic tongue. Some of the possible complications geographic tongue can cause include things like:

Genetics: Geographic tongue may run in families, indicating a possible genetic link.

Other health conditions: People with psoriasis, eczema, or other inflammatory skin conditions may be more likely to develop geographic tongue.

Gender: Geographic tongue is more common in women than in men.

Age: Geographic tongue is more common in middle-aged adults but it can occur at any age, including in children. According to some studies, up to 10% of children may develop pediatric geographic tongue.

Smoking and alcohol: People who smoke or consume alcohol may be more likely to develop geographic tongue than people who don’t. 

It's important to note that having a risk factor does not necessarily mean a person will develop geographic tongue or not. People without any of these risk factors can still exhibit symptoms. 

The only thing to watch for is pain, geographic tongue can sometimes make it difficult to eat or swallow. If you have burning tongue symptoms, talk to your dentist about the treatments available. 

How To Treat Geographic Tongue 

Even though there’s not a specific way to cure geographic tongue, your dentist might recommend several methods to help manage the symptoms or prevent severe flare-ups, such as:

Over-the-counter pain relievers: To alleviate burning or stinging sensations.

Topical creams or gels: To help reduce inflammation and soothe discomfort, especially before eating.

Oral hygiene: Maintaining good oral hygiene by brushing and flossing regularly can help to prevent infection and reduce inflammation throughout your mouth.

Diet modification: Avoid spicy or acidic foods that may irritate the tissues inside your mouth. 

Cutting out alcohol, alcohol-containing mouthwash, and nicotine: Alcohol is a drying agent and will cause further irritation. Smoking and vaping can also be harmful.

Vitamin supplements: Deficiencies in vitamin B12 or folic acid are linked with geographic tongue, so vitamin supplements may be helpful.

Miracle mouthwash: This prescription or homemade concoction can help alleviate discomfort associated with burning mouth symptoms. 

If your tongue issues are severe or worsen, your dentist may refer you to a specialist, such as an oral surgeon, immunologist, or dermatologist, for a biopsy or a secondary evaluation. 

How To Prevent Geographic Tongue

It's not entirely clear what causes geographic tongue, so it's difficult to say how to avoid it entirely. However, some steps may help to reduce the likelihood of developing the condition, including:

  • Maintaining good oral hygiene and preventing oral infections by brushing and flossing regularly
  • Avoiding spicy or acidic foods that may irritate the tongue or other tissues in your mouth
  • Quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption
  • Following your doctor’s recommendations in regard to conditions like psoriasis or eczema, as they may be linked to geographic tongue
  • Taking vitamin or dietary supplements, such as B12 and folic acid

Despite these steps, it’s not always possible to prevent geographic tongue from developing. You may still develop the condition, but symptoms could be less severe. 

Know When to Talk to Your Dentist

It's important to note that there is no specific treatment for geographic tongue, and in most cases, the condition will go away on its own over time. However, it’s worth noting that other types of pathology—including oral cancer—could potentially mimic the appearance of geographic tongue. You can’t afford to ignore the symptoms. Plan to see your dentist regularly for oral exams and cancer screenings to rule out any cancerous or pre-cancerous tissues. 

If you’ve never been diagnosed with geographic tongue and notice symptoms getting worse or persisting for more than two weeks, schedule an exam with your dentist for a professional evaluation. 

 Whitney DiFoggio MA, RDH
Written by Whitney DiFoggio MA, RDH"Teeth Talk Girl," is a registered dental hygienist. She started her dental health journey on YouTube, educating the public through videos.
Dr. Matthew  Hannan DDS
Medical Reviewed byDr. Matthew Hannan DDSDr. Matthew Hannan is a board-certified dentist and graduate of UT Health San Antonio School of Dentistry.
Last updated onOctober 18, 2023Here is our process

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